Hlynur Adolfsson Posted on 5:49 am



If one categorizes the components of a computer by their nature, the first thing that results is a division into hardware and software. Basically, software and hardware are not self-sufficient, but work together and depend on each other.

The hardware is the totality of the physical components that store and run the software. They have so-called interfaces (inputs and outputs), storage units (chips, hard drives), processors (central processing unit, CPU) and control elements (mouse, keyboard).

The software, on the other hand, is the interplay of computer programs and procedures that perform certain tasks on a computer. Basically, these are ordered sequences of instructions that cause a change within a computer system. These allow the user to interact with the computer. To make this possible, most software has a user-friendly user interface, the so-called user interface. The design of this interface is called UI Design or UX Design(User Experience).


Software development is a service of information technology, or IT for short. It is carried out by an IT specialist, a trained software developer or programmer. There are different careers for this profession. Software developers have usually completed a degree like in the field of software engineering or training in this area, or have come as cross-competitors via a retraining or further training for software development.


Software programmers are often used as a synonym for the profession of software developer. Software developers care about much more than just software programming. Her work also includes the gathering of requirements as part of a requirements analysis, the conception, the planning as well as the commissioning and maintenance afterwards.



Basically, three types of software can be distinguished. The system software lays the foundation for all other types of software on a computer. It is already supplied by the manufacturer and runs in the background, which is why there is usually no interaction with users. Examples of system software include operating systems such as MacOS, Windows, or Linux.

Programming software

Programming software includes computer programs that developers use for programming, maintenance, troubleshooting, or other support for programs and applications. These can be, for example, so-called IDEs, integrated development environments such as Microsoft Visual Studio or XCode, which also often come together with the operating system as a tool package.


The application software is what most users come into contact with. This includes computer programs that help the end-user perform certain tasks, activities, and functions. In some cases, this is supplied in so-called bundles by the manufacturer or can be downloaded and installed separately. The most common application software includes, for example, programs for authoring such as Word, photo editing such as Photoshop, or playing music and videos such as media players.


The first computer programs actually executed ran on Konrad Zuse’s first Z3 computer. He first developed the Z1, which worked purely mechanically, and then came to the Z3 via the transition model Z2. Using electromechanical relays, programs ran on punch strips that could execute sequences of commands. His functions included handling large numbers, basic arithmetic addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, square root calculations, and matrices accounting programs.



The most important, but probably also the most difficult programming language is C with its extensions C++ and C. Many operating systems are mostly written in C, such as Linux and Windows. Originally, C was intended for system development, but is now also used in many other areas.


Python is the all-rounder among programming languages. It is characterized by a clear and easy-to-understand syntax and is therefore a good introduction to software development. In addition, it is widely used and supported by a variety of systems.


Java is a programming language originally developed for web applications. However, it is also used for the creation of games and multimedia applications. It can be written on almost any device because it is platform-independent. It is also considered very safe because it blocks various manipulations and errors.

Visual Basic

Visual Basic was developed by Microsoft and is primarily used in app development. Unlike other languages, it is event-based: the code responds to user interactions. Visual Basic is considered easy to learn, but is not necessarily suitable for fundamental programming.


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